Champagne cocktails served today have their roots in some of the earliest punch recipes. Punch Royal, made with wine, including wines from Champagne, was more delicate than the stronger concoctions made with arrack, brandy or rum. However, the champagne we know today, and which gives modern cocktails their distinctive fizz, is a relatively recent style. Looking at descriptions of the original wine suggests that champagne was originally included to introduce acidity and some alcohol. Continue reading
Mulled wine, for many, sums up festive cheer and relaxing après-ski especially at Christmas. Hot spiced drinks have a long history; popular throughout Europe during the cold winter months since wine and beers were first made, especially before tea, coffee and hot chocolate were introduced. As mulled wine is defined by its being heated, I am here looking more closely at the process of heating.
Often in literature the mulled wine is simply ‘prepared’ with little reference as to how it is heated. The heat is important, and as Dicken’s reference to ‘Smoking Bishop’ (a type of mulled wine) in A Christmas Carol (1842) shows, the image of the steam from the hot wine is both cheerful and heart-warming.
The basic Roman recipe for hot wine, calda, simply added hot water, a method which remained as a ‘quick fix’ for hot wine until the nineteenth century. Richer recipes, such as that in Apicus, had wine sweetened with honey and spices. In Medieval times hot, spiced wines were called piment or hypocras; expensive ingredients of sugar, spices and wine made them the drink of the rich.
The use of fish as a decorative feature on a punch bowl is not, at first, an obvious choice. Although sometimes drunk with anchovy toasts, salmon, fried whitebait or oysters (in Britain at least), this does not seem to be the reason for fish decorations.
Instead, it appears that the use of fish decorations on British punch bowls was associated with alcohol and the imagery of being as drunk as a fish.
The expression ‘to drink like a fish’ has long been popular in Britain to indicate drinking a large amount of alcohol. It was first recorded in 1640, appearing in Fletcher and Shirley’s stage comedy The night-walker, or the little theife: ‘Give me the bottle, I can drink like a Fish now, like an Elephant.’ In William Congreve’s 1700 play The Way of the World, he says ‘Thou art both as drunk and as mute as a fish.’
This competition seeks creation of an original cocktail with an interesting background story, an appealing drink with the potential to become a classic cocktail. And of course the usual flair preparing and presenting the cocktail. As this competition is sponsored by Bacardi, the main requirement is that the cocktail include one of two staple bar ingredients: Bacardi Superior rum (white) or Bacardi Carta Oro rum (golden).
This Sunday, 25th January 2015, will be Burn’s Night or Burn’s Supper, when Scots around the world celebrate the life and works of their national poet, Robert Burns (1759-1796). This year it falls on his actual birthday, but otherwise takes place on the nearest Sunday. Traditionally a haggis is piped in with the bagpipes, whisky is drunk and Burns’s poems recited.
Around 1780, there were about eight legal distilleries and 400 illegal ones. In 1823, Parliament introduced an Excise Act designed to encourage the licensed distilleries and ease out the hundreds of small illegal operations. Technology improved whisky production with the introduction of the column still in 1831. This was a less expensive method of production and made for a smoother, and more commercially attractive drink. Punch, or toddy, made with whisky, hot water or tea, honey or sugar, and sometimes lemon, was a popular form of drinking whisky. Continue reading
On Sunday 28th December 2014, my friend Joanna Crosby (who is working on her PhD on the social and cultural history of apples and the orchard, and who founded the Trumpington Community Orchard) was interviewed by Lucie Skeaping on BBC Radio 3’s Early Music Show in a programme called Here We Come a-Wassailing (no longer available). As Joanna recounted the history of the drink wassail, wassailing songs of each period were performed, such as Here We Come A-wassailing:
Here we come a-wassailing
Among the leaves so green;
Here we come a-wand’ring
So fair to be seen.
Love and joy come to you,
And to you your wassail too;
And God bless you and send you
a happy New Year.
Last night I was serving up a hot Greek-style punch called rakomelo at a Christmas party hosted by a local Greek shop. Rakomelo is quite different to North European and American mulled wine, being more alcoholic (commercial ready-bottled brands need a minimum of 20% alcohol) and with little or no fruit, the honey and spice character more pronounced. Homemade rakomelo can be much stronger!
In ancient Greece, wine was diluted and cooled by being mixed with water, sweetened and spiced if necessary, and prepared in large kraters, before being served to guests from the krater.
The use of distilled alcohol did not begin to enter the repertoire of drinks until the late 13th century, and then primarily for medicinal purposes, and these drinks have survived as the sweet herb infused liqueurs originally made in monasteries.
Following the Fourth Crusade in 1205, the Franks and Venetians invaded Greece. The Franks remaining in control of the Peloponnese until 1430. Distillation of spirits was introduced, and, as elsewhere in Europe the spirits were mixed with existing medicinal drinks such as vrastari – an infusion of herbs and spices sweetened with honey, and a Rakomelo-style drink was created.
Rakomelo has remained a popular speciality on the Cyclades islands of Crete and Amorgos. In Crete, raki is called tsikoudia (the name raki, may refer to Iraq and may date to the Ottomans when they conquered Greece after the Franks).
Distilleries were encouraged by the Greek government in 1920, when special permits were given to farmers to distill raki for additional income. Raki is a neutral flavoured eau de vie made from the grape pomace, the residue from making wine, is distilled to form a clear spirit. Kazanemata, or cauldron feasts, are the harvest festivities which take place in Crete at the end of the wine fermentation when the raki is distilled.
Rakomelo is made by infusing the spices, such as cinnamon, cardamom, anise or pepper, and herbs, such as thyme, in honey (melo) and water to create a sweetened infusion, vrastari, before adding the raki. Psimeni raki uses sugar instead of honey, with more spices. Commercial versions include Mastihato (with mastic), Lemontelo (with lemon) and Portomelo (with orange).
Rakomelo is traditionally served hot during the winter and cold in summer.
The proportions, based on a single serving are:
- 10cl of raki
- 1 tablespoon of honey. Greek thyme honey gives a lovely flavour.
- ½ a cinnamon stick
- 1 clove
For a quicker version, put all the ingredients in a pan, then heat this slowly and gently. The rakomelo is ready to serve when the honey melts and steam starts to rise. If the drink is allowed to boil, some of the alcohol will evaporate. Before serving, remove the spices. (Using powdered spices will give a powdery deposit on the surface of the drink.)
As an alternative to more traditional mulled wine, I made a lighter, fruitier and less alcoholic rakomelo by adding the juice of half an orange for every 10cl of raki, a pinch of thyme and water to taste. To serve a crowd I multiplied the quantity and served this from a jug.The final taste was sweet, strong and spicy – with the thyme flavours giving an attractive balance to the sweetness of the honey.
Although sometimes described as Greek or Raki punch, with its blend of sweet, strong and weak, it does not normally include include the citrus-acid element of punch.