Mulled wine, for many, sums up festive cheer and relaxing après-ski especially at Christmas. Hot spiced drinks have a long history; popular throughout Europe during the cold winter months since wine and beers were first made, especially before tea, coffee and hot chocolate were introduced. As mulled wine is defined by its being heated, I am here looking more closely at the process of heating.
Often in literature the mulled wine is simply ‘prepared’ with little reference as to how it is heated. The heat is important, and as Dicken’s reference to ‘Smoking Bishop’ (a type of mulled wine) in A Christmas Carol (1842) shows, the image of the steam from the hot wine is both cheerful and heart-warming.
The basic Roman recipe for hot wine, calda, simply added hot water, a method which remained as a ‘quick fix’ for hot wine until the nineteenth century. Richer recipes, such as that in Apicus, had wine sweetened with honey and spices. In Medieval times hot, spiced wines were called piment or hypocras; expensive ingredients of sugar, spices and wine made them the drink of the rich.